# Source code for neurokit2.complexity.fractal_psdslope

```
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
from ..signal import signal_detrend, signal_psd
[docs]
def fractal_psdslope(signal, method="voss1988", show=False, **kwargs):
"""**Fractal dimension via Power Spectral Density (PSD) slope**
Fractal exponent can be computed from Power Spectral Density slope (PSDslope) analysis in
signals characterized by a frequency power-law dependence.
It first transforms the time series into the frequency domain, and breaks down the signal into
sine and cosine waves of a particular amplitude that together "add-up" to represent the
original signal.
If there is a systematic relationship between the frequencies in the signal and the power of
those frequencies, this will reveal itself in log-log coordinates as a linear relationship. The
slope of the best fitting line is taken as an estimate of the fractal scaling exponent and can
be converted to an estimate of the fractal dimension.
A slope of 0 is consistent with white noise, and a slope of less than 0 but greater than -1,
is consistent with pink noise i.e., 1/f noise. Spectral slopes as steep as -2 indicate
fractional Brownian motion, the epitome of random walk processes.
Parameters
----------
signal : Union[list, np.array, pd.Series]
The signal (i.e., a time series) in the form of a vector of values.
method : str
Method to estimate the fractal dimension from the slope,
can be ``"voss1988"`` (default) or ``"hasselman2013"``.
show : bool
If True, returns the log-log plot of PSD versus frequency.
**kwargs
Other arguments to be passed to ``signal_psd()`` (such as ``method``).
Returns
----------
slope : float
Estimate of the fractal dimension obtained from PSD slope analysis.
info : dict
A dictionary containing additional information regarding the parameters used
to perform PSD slope analysis.
Examples
----------
.. ipython:: python
import neurokit2 as nk
# Simulate a Signal with Laplace Noise
signal = nk.signal_simulate(duration=2, sampling_rate=200, frequency=[5, 6], noise=0.5)
# Compute the Fractal Dimension from PSD slope
@savefig p_fractal_psdslope1.png scale=100%
psdslope, info = nk.fractal_psdslope(signal, show=True)
@suppress
plt.close()
.. ipython:: python
psdslope
References
----------
* https://complexity-methods.github.io/book/power-spectral-density-psd-slope.html
* Hasselman, F. (2013). When the blind curve is finite: dimension estimation and model
inference based on empirical waveforms. Frontiers in Physiology, 4, 75. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2013.00075
* Voss, R. F. (1988). Fractals in nature: From characterization to simulation. The Science of
Fractal Images, 21-70.
* Eke, A., Hermán, P., Kocsis, L., and Kozak, L. R. (2002). Fractal characterization of
complexity in temporal physiological signals. Physiol. Meas. 23, 1-38.
"""
# Sanity checks
if isinstance(signal, (np.ndarray, pd.DataFrame)) and signal.ndim > 1:
raise ValueError(
"Multidimensional inputs (e.g., matrices or multichannel data) are not supported yet."
)
# Translated from https://github.com/FredHasselman/casnet/blob/master/R/fd.R
# Detrend
signal = signal_detrend(signal)
# Standardise using N instead of N-1
signal = (signal - np.nanmean(signal)) / np.nanstd(signal)
# Get psd with fourier transform
psd = signal_psd(signal, sampling_rate=1000, method="fft", show=False, **kwargs)
psd = psd[psd["Frequency"] < psd.quantile(0.25).iloc[0]]
psd = psd[psd["Frequency"] > 0]
# Get slope
slope, intercept = np.polyfit(np.log10(psd["Frequency"]), np.log10(psd["Power"]), 1)
# "Check the global slope for anti-persistent noise (GT +0.20) and fit the line starting from
# the highest frequency" in FredHasselman/casnet.
# Not sure about that, commenting it out for now.
# if slope > 0.2:
# slope, intercept = np.polyfit(np.log10(np.flip(psd["Frequency"])), np.log10(np.flip(psd["Power"])), 1)
# Sanitize method name
method = method.lower()
if method in ["voss", "voss1988"]:
fd = (5 - slope) / 2
elif method in ["hasselman", "hasselman2013"]:
# Convert from periodogram based self-affinity parameter estimate (`sa`) to an informed
# estimate of fd
fd = 3 / 2 + ((14 / 33) * np.tanh(slope * np.log(1 + np.sqrt(2))))
if show:
_fractal_psdslope_plot(psd["Frequency"], psd["Power"], slope, intercept, fd, ax=None)
return fd, {"Slope": slope, "Method": method}
# =============================================================================
# Plotting
# =============================================================================
def _fractal_psdslope_plot(frequency, psd, slope, intercept, fd, ax=None):
if ax is None:
fig, ax = plt.subplots()
fig.suptitle(
"Power Spectral Density (PSD) slope analysis" + ", slope = " + str(np.round(slope, 2))
)
else:
fig = None
ax.set_title(
"Power Spectral Density (PSD) slope analysis" + ", slope = " + str(np.round(slope, 2))
)
ax.set_ylabel(r"$\log_{10}$(Power)")
ax.set_xlabel(r"$\log_{10}$(Frequency)")
# ax.scatter(np.log10(frequency), np.log10(psd), marker="o", zorder=1)
ax.plot(np.log10(frequency), np.log10(psd), zorder=1)
# fit_values = [slope * i + intercept for i in np.log10(frequency)]
fit = np.polyval((slope, intercept), np.log10(frequency))
ax.plot(
np.log10(frequency),
fit,
color="#FF9800",
zorder=2,
label="Fractal Dimension = " + str(np.round(fd, 2)),
)
ax.legend(loc="lower right")
return fig
```