# Source code for neurokit2.complexity.fractal_tmf

```
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
import scipy.stats
from packaging import version
from ..signal import signal_surrogate
from .fractal_dfa import fractal_dfa
[docs]
def fractal_tmf(signal, n=40, show=False, **kwargs):
"""**Multifractal Nonlinearity (tMF)**
The Multifractal Nonlinearity index (*t*\\MF) is the *t*\\-value resulting from the comparison
of the multifractality of the signal (measured by the spectrum width, see
:func:`.fractal_dfa`) with the multifractality of linearized
:func:`surrogates <.signal_surrogate>` obtained by the IAAFT method (i.e., reshuffled series
with comparable linear structure).
This statistics grows larger the more the original series departs from the multifractality
attributable to the linear structure of IAAFT surrogates. When p-value reaches significance, we
can conclude that the signal's multifractality encodes processes that a linear contingency
cannot.
This index provides an extension of the assessment of multifractality, of which the
multifractal spectrum is by itself a measure of heterogeneity, rather than interactivity.
As such, it cannot alone be used to assess the specific presence of cascade-like interactivity
in the time series, but must be compared to the spectrum of a sample of its surrogates.
.. figure:: ../img/bell2019.jpg
:alt: Figure from Bell et al. (2019).
:target: https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.00998
Both significantly negative and positive values can indicate interactivity, as any difference
from the linear structure represented by the surrogates is an indication of nonlinear
contingence. Indeed, if the degree of heterogeneity for the original series is significantly
less than for the sample of linear surrogates, that is no less evidence of a failure of
linearity than if the degree of heterogeneity is significantly greater.
.. note::
Help us review the implementation of this index by checking-it out and letting us know
wether it is correct or not.
Parameters
----------
signal : Union[list, np.array, pd.Series]
The signal (i.e., a time series) in the form of a vector of values.
n : int
Number of surrogates. The literature uses values between 30 and 40.
**kwargs : optional
Other arguments to be passed to :func:`.fractal_dfa`.
Returns
-------
float
tMF index.
info : dict
A dictionary containing additional information, such as the p-value.
See Also
--------
fractal_dfa, .signal_surrogate
Examples
----------
.. ipython:: python
import neurokit2 as nk
# Simulate a Signal
signal = nk.signal_simulate(duration=1, sampling_rate=200, frequency=[5, 6, 12], noise=0.2)
# Compute tMF
@savefig p_fractal_tmf.png scale=100%
tMF, info = nk.fractal_tmf(signal, n=100, show=True)
@suppress
plt.close()
.. ipython:: python
tMF # t-value
info["p"] # p-value
References
----------
* Ihlen, E. A., & Vereijken, B. (2013). Multifractal formalisms of human behavior. Human
movement science, 32(4), 633-651.
* Kelty-Stephen, D. G., Palatinus, K., Saltzman, E., & Dixon, J. A. (2013). A tutorial on
multifractality, cascades, and interactivity for empirical time series in ecological science.
Ecological Psychology, 25(1), 1-62.
* Bell, C. A., Carver, N. S., Zbaracki, J. A., & Kelty-Stephen, D. G. (2019). Non-linear
amplification of variability through interaction across scales supports greater accuracy in
manual aiming: evidence from a multifractal analysis with comparisons to linear surrogates in
the fitts task. Frontiers in physiology, 10, 998.
"""
# Sanity checks
if isinstance(signal, (np.ndarray, pd.DataFrame)) and signal.ndim > 1:
raise ValueError(
"Multidimensional inputs (e.g., matrices or multichannel data) are not supported yet."
)
info = {}
w0 = fractal_dfa(signal, multifractal=True, show=False)[0]["Width"]
w = np.zeros(n)
for i in range(n):
surro = signal_surrogate(signal, method="IAAFT")
w[i] = float(fractal_dfa(surro, multifractal=True, show=False)[0]["Width"].iloc[0])
# Run t-test
# TODO: adjust in the future
if version.parse(scipy.__version__) < version.parse("1.10.0"):
t, p = scipy.stats.ttest_1samp(w, w0)
t = t[0]
t = t.item()
info["p"] = p[0]
else:
t, info["p"] = scipy.stats.ttest_1samp(w, w0)
if show is True:
pd.Series(w).plot(kind="density", label="Width of surrogates")
plt.axvline(x=w0.values, c="red", label="Width of original signal")
plt.title(f"tMF = {t:.2f}, p = {info['p']:.2f}")
plt.legend()
return t, info
```